Transport Phenomena in Nano/Molecular Confinements

M Nazari and A Davoodabadi and DZ Huang and TF Luo and H Ghasemi, ACS NANO, 14, 16348-16391 (2020).

DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.0c07372

The transport of fluid and ions in nano/molecular confinements is the governing physics of a myriad of embodiments in nature and technology including human physiology, plants, energy modules, water collection and treatment systems, chemical processes, materials synthesis, and medicine. At nano/molecular scales, the confinement dimension approaches the molecular size and the transport characteristics deviates significantly from that at macro/micro scales. A thorough understanding of physics of transport at these scales and associated fluid properties is undoubtedly critical for future technologies. This compressive review provides an elaborate picture on the promising future applications of nano/molecular transport, highlights experimental and simulation metrologies to probe and comprehend this transport phenomenon, discusses the physics of fluid transport, tunable flow by orders of magnitude, and gating mechanisms at these scales, and lists the advancement in the fabrication methodologies to turn these transport concepts into reality. Properties such as chain-like liquid transport, confined gas transport, surface charge-driven ion transport, physical/chemical ion gates, and ion diodes will provide avenues to devise technologies with enhanced performance inaccessible through macro/micro systems. This review aims to provide a consolidated body of knowledge to accelerate innovation and breakthrough in the above fields.

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