Heterogeneous assembly of water from the vapor phase-Physical experiments and simulations with binding trifunctional organosilanes at the vapor/solid interface

DII Senadheera and NMK Kuruppu Arachchige and V Subasinghege Don and R Kumar and JC Garno, JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS, 154, 214705 (2021).

DOI: 10.1063/5.0046210

A trace amount of interfacial water is required to initiate hydrosilation reactions of trifunctional organosilanes to form surface assemblies. In recent studies, we have learned that water also has a critical role in directing molecular placement on surfaces because water can react with silicon to provide oxygenated sites for surface binding. Consequently, the wettability nature of substrates influences the placement and density of organosilane films formed by vapor-phase reactions. Nanopatterning protocols were designed using vapor-phase organosilanes and colloidal lithography to compare the wettability differences of hydrophilic mica(0001) compared to relatively hydrophobic Si(100) as a strategy for tracking the location of water on surfaces. The competition between hydrophobic and hydrophilic domains for the adsorption and coalescence of water condensed from vapor can be mapped indirectly by mapping the organosilanes, which bind to water at the solid interface, using atomic force microscopy. Trifunctional octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) was used as a marker molecule to map out the areas of the surface where water was deposited. The effect of systematic changes in film thickness and surface coverage of OTS was evaluated at the vapor/solid interface by adding an incremental amount of water to sealed reaction vessels to wet the surface and assessing the outcome after reaction with vapor-phase trichlorosilane. Reactive molecular dynamics simulations of the silicon-water vapor interface combined with electronic structure calculations of oxygenated silicon clusters with methyltrichlorosilane provided insight of the mechanism for surface binding, toward understanding the nature of the interface and wettability factors, which influence the association and placement of silane molecules on surfaces.

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