Ultrasensitive Detection of Dopamine, IL-6 and SARS-CoV-2 Proteins on Crumpled Graphene FET Biosensor

MT Hwang and I Park and M Heiranian and A Taqieddin and SY You and V Faramarzi and AA Pak and AM Zande and NR Aluru and R Bashir, ADVANCED MATERIALS TECHNOLOGIES, 6, 2100712 (2021).

DOI: 10.1002/admt.202100712

Universal platforms for biomolecular analysis using label-free sensing modalities can address important diagnostic challenges. Electrical field effect-sensors are an important class of devices that can enable point- of-care sensing by probing the charge in the biological entities. Use of crumpled graphene for this application is especially promising. It is previously reported that the limit of detection (LoD) on electrical field effect-based sensors using DNA molecules on the crumpled graphene FET (field-effect transistor) platform. Here, the crumpled graphene FET- based biosensing of important biomarkers including small molecules and proteins is reported. The performance of devices is systematically evaluated and optimized by studying the effect of the crumpling ratio on electrical double layer (EDL) formation and bandgap opening on the graphene. It is also shown that a small and electroneutral molecule dopamine can be captured by an aptamer and its conformation change induced electrical signal changes. Three kinds of proteins were captured with specific antibodies including interleukin-6 (IL-6) and two viral proteins. All tested biomarkers are detectable with the highest sensitivity reported on the electrical platform. Significantly, two COVID-19 related proteins, nucleocapsid (N-) and spike (S-) proteins antigens are successfully detected with extremely low LoDs. This electrical antigen tests can contribute to the challenge of rapid, point-of-care diagnostics.

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