Microscopic and Macroscopic Fragmentation Characteristics under Hypervelocity Impact Based on MD and SPH Method
WD Wu and JM Liu and W Xie and Y Xing and JL Shao, NANOMATERIALS, 11, 2953 (2021).
This work investigates the difference in the fragmentation characteristics between the microscopic and macroscopic scales under hypervelocity impact, with the simulations of Molecular Dynamics (MD) and Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method. Under low shock intensity, the model at microscopic scale exhibits good penetration resistance due to the constraint of strength and surface tension. The bullet is finally embedded into the target, rather than forming a typical debris cloud at macroscopic scale. Under high shock intensity, the occurrence of unloading melting of the sample reduces the strength of the material. The material at the microscopic scale has also been completely penetrated. However, the width of the ejecta veil and external bubble of the debris cloud are narrower. In addition, the residual velocity of bullet, crater diameter and expansion angle of the debris cloud at microscopic scale are all smaller than those at macroscopic scale, especially for low-velocity conditions. The difference can be as much as two times. These characteristics indicate that the degree of conversion of kinetic energy to internal energy at the microscopic scale is much higher than that of the macroscopic results. Furthermore, the MD simulation method can further provide details of the physical characteristics at the micro-scale. As the shock intensity increases, the local melting phenomenon becomes more pronounced, accompanied by a decrease in dislocation atoms and a corresponding increase in disordered atoms. In addition, the fraction of disordered atoms is found to increase exponentially with the increasing incident kinetic energy.
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