Dependency of active pressure and equation of state on stiffness of wall
E Pirhadi and X Cheng and X Yong, SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, 11, 22204 (2021).
Autonomous motion and motility are hallmarks of active matter. Active agents, such as biological cells and synthetic colloidal particles, consume internal energy or extract energy from the environment to generate self-propulsion and locomotion. These systems are persistently out of equilibrium due to continuous energy consumption. It is known that pressure is not always a state function for generic active matter. Torque interaction between active constituents and confinement renders the pressure of the system a boundary-dependent property. The mechanical pressure of anisotropic active particles depends on their microscopic interactions with a solid wall. Using self-propelled dumbbells confined by solid walls as a model system, we perform numerical simulations to explore how variations in the wall stiffness influence the mechanical pressure of dry active matter. In contrast to previous findings, we find that mechanical pressure can be independent of the interaction of anisotropic active particles with walls, even in the presence of intrinsic torque interaction. Particularly, the dependency of pressure on the wall stiffness vanishes when the stiffness is above a critical level. In such a limit, the dynamics of dumbbells near the walls are randomized due to the large torque experienced by the dumbbells, leading to the recovery of pressure as a state variable of density.
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