Recent Developments in Data-Assisted Modeling of Flexible Proteins
C Czaplewski and Z Gong and EA Lubecka and K Xue and C Tang and A Liwo, FRONTIERS IN MOLECULAR BIOSCIENCES, 8, 765562 (2021).
Many proteins can fold into well-defined conformations. However, intrinsically-disordered proteins (IDPs) do not possess a defined structure. Moreover, folded multi-domain proteins often digress into alternative conformations. Collectively, the conformational dynamics enables these proteins to fulfill specific functions. Thus, most experimental observables are averaged over the conformations that constitute an ensemble. In this article, we review the recent developments in the concept and methods for the determination of the dynamic structures of flexible peptides and proteins. In particular, we describe ways to extract information from nuclear magnetic resonance small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and chemical cross-linking coupled with mass spectroscopy (XL-MS) measurements. All these techniques can be used to obtain ensemble-averaged restraints or to re-weight the simulated conformational ensembles.
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