Fluid flow at interfaces driven by thermal gradients
P Anzini and Z Filiberti and A Parola, PHYSICAL REVIEW E, 106, 024116 (2022).
Thermal forces drive several nonequilibrium phenomena able to set a fluid in motion without pressure gradi-ents. Although the most celebrated effect is thermophoresis, also known as Ludwig-Soret effect, probably the simplest example where thermal forces are at play is thermo-osmosis: The motion of a confined fluid exclusively due to the presence of a temperature gradient. We present a concise but complete derivation of the microscopic theory of thermo-osmosis based on linear response theory. This approach is applied to a simple fluid confined in a slab geometry, mimicking the flow through a pore in a membrane separating two fluid reservoirs at different temperatures. We consider both the case of an open channel, where the fluid can flow freely, and that of a closed channel, where mass transport is inhibited and a pressure drop sets in at the boundaries. Quantitative results require the evaluation of generalized transport coefficients, but a preliminary check on a specific prediction of the theory has been successfully performed via nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations.
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