**A soft departure from jamming: the compaction of deformable granular
matter under high pressures**

J. T. Clemmer, J. M. Monti, and J. B. Lechman, Soft Matter, 20, 1702-1718 (2024).

The high-pressure compaction of three dimensional granular packings is simulated using a bonded particle model (BPM) to capture linear elastic deformation. In the model, grains are represented by a collection of point particles connected by bonds. A simple multibody interaction is introduced to control Poisson’s ratio and the arrangement of particles on the surface of a grain is varied to model both high- and low-frictional grains. At low pressures, the growth in packing fraction and coordination number follow the expected behavior near jamming and exhibit friction dependence. As the pressure increases, deviations from the low-pressure power-law scaling emerge after the packing fraction grows by approximately 0.1 and results from simulations with different friction coefficients converge. These results are compared to predictions from traditional discrete element method simulations which, depending on the definition of packing fraction and coordination number, may only differ by a factor of two. As grains deform under compaction, the average volumetric strain and asphericity, a measure of the change in the shape of grains, are found to grow as power laws and depend heavily on the Poisson’s ratio of the constituent solid. Larger Poisson’s ratios are associated with less volumetric strain and more asphericity and the apparent power-law exponent of the asphericity may vary. The elastic properties of the packed grains are also calculated as a function of packing fraction. In particular, we find the Poisson’s ratio near jamming is 1/2 but decreases to around 1/4 before rising again as systems densify.

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